Paper: Reinforcement Learning for Digital Quantum Simulation


Digital quantum simulation on quantum computers provides the potential to simulate the unitary evolution of any many-body Hamiltonian with bounded spectrum by discretizing the time evolution operator through a sequence of elementary quantum gates. A fundamental challenge in this context originates from experimental imperfections, which critically limits the number of attainable gates within a reasonable accuracy and therefore the achievable system sizes and simulation times. In this work, we introduce a reinforcement learning algorithm to systematically build optimized quantum circuits for digital quantum simulation upon imposing a strong constraint on the number of quantum gates. With this we consistently obtain quantum circuits that reproduce physical observables with as little as three entangling gates for long times and large system sizes up to 16 qubits. As concrete examples we apply our formalism to a long-range Ising chain and the lattice Schwinger model. Our method demonstrates that digital quantum simulation on noisy intermediate scale quantum devices can be pushed to much larger scale within the current experimental technology by a suitable engineering of quantum circuits using reinforcement learning.