Some programs in the Institute of Mathematics University Augsburg use Python as programming language. Inside Python as language the omost used additonal mathematical moduls are numpy (numeric data structures and methods) and matplotlib (interface for graphical layout).
It should be sufficient to install the following list of packages:
python3-matplotlib python3-numpy python3-pip
for this you can use a graphical tool or one of the command lines (apt, aptitude, apt-get).
To simplify the installation and working with Python just install the Anaconda-Distribution. This installs not only Python but also a large number of additional modules, in particular a lot of interesting mathematical modules.
Do not use Python 2, for this version the support is canceled since Januar 2020.